I’ve been using self-signed certificates for a while – but – that means getting the users to approve them each time they change. Instead – lets generate a Certificate Authority (CA) certificate with a reasonably long life – get them to install that and then new certificates signed with that will be valid for them.
We will install a CA area on /etc/ssl/ca and then create a certificate signed with this.
We’re going to use the script CA.pl which on debian is installed on /usr/lib/ssl/misc. But – we need to make some changes
First – in CA.pl itself – change the variables near the top for DAYS (default certificate length) and CADAYS (default CA certificate length). By default they are for 1 and 3 years – I went with 10 and 15 – since I’m lazy 🙂
$DAYS=”-days 3650″; # 10 years
$CADAYS=”-days 5475″; # 15 years
The CA.pl script makes everything in paths relative to your current working directory. This is fine for new certificates, requests etc – but not for the CA files themselves. Find and change
One more change – the default CA certificates key is 1024 bits RSA. I would like 2048. So – search down to print “Making CA certificate …\n”;. The line after that needs changing from
system (“$REQ -new -keyout ” .
system (“$REQ -newkey rsa:2048 -keyout ” .
Finally – we need to match changes in /etc/ssl/openssl.cnf
dir = ./demoCA
dir = /etc/ssl/ca
default_days = 365
default_days = 3650
You can also if you wish change the default certificate parts (country, section etc) lower down in this file. You’ll be able to overwrite each entry at certificate creation time – but this allows you to set useful defaults.
Generate the CA
Run the following:
Press return for the CA certificate file name.
It will ask for A PEM pass phrase – choose a good one – this protects your CA certificate’s key.
It will ask for certificate details (country etc) – enter whatever is appropriate for you.
It will then try to create the certificate with the newly signed key (using the openssl.cnf config) – you will have to give the password you entered above.
Your new cacert.pem file is now in /etc/ssl/ca/cacert.pem and can be distributed for installation in browsers etc.
Create a PKCS12 version of the certificate
Some systems want the certificate in pkcs12 format:
From the /etc/ssl/ca directory run
openssl pkcs12 -export -in cacert.pem -inkey private/cakey.pem -out cacert.p12
Opera will not accept this – it believes that both the key and the certificate in this file should be encrypted. I’m still working on this one – at present I’ve used:
openssl pkcs12 -export -in cacert.pem -inkey private/cakey.pem -descert -out cacert.des.p12
And Opera will at least import it – but – it places it in the Personal Client certificate list instead of the Authorities tab – despite being on the Authorities tab on import. I will update this if I find out what needs to be done.
More info on http://my.opera.com/community/forums/topic.dml?id=245482
This goes through the following process:
Generate a certificate request
Send this for signing
Receive the signed certificate
Of course – as your own CA you will be sending it to yourself and signing it yourself.
Generating a certificate request
This will prompt you for the certificate details. The vital point is that the CN of the certificate must be the domain name of the site you wish to secure. You can use *.example.com for a wildcard certificate (everything under example.com).
This will generate a newkey.pem and a newreq.pem. newkey.pem you need to keep for later – newreq.pem you would send off for signing – in this case to yourself – but you could also use it for purchasing a real certificate.
Signing a certificate request
Given a newreq.pem in the current working directory run
This will sign the request and generate a newcert.pem with the signed certificate.
Installing the certificates
The installation will depend on what software you are using. You will need the newkey.pem and newcert.pem – rename them to something useful – like domainname.key and domainname.cert.
Some software will not accept the extra information in the certificate file – you can strip out everything apart from the lines “—–BEGIN CERTIFICATE—–” up to and including “—–END CERTIFICATE—–”.
Note – your key has a passphrase assigned during the -newreq phase. If you want your software to autostart this won’t work – since it prompts for the password. To remove a passphrase:
openssl rsa -in newkey.pem -out newkey.nopass.pem
This will prompt you one last time and then generate a non-passphrase key file that you can use instead.